Brady, the three-time Super Bowl-winning quarterback who missed all of last season with a knee injury, threw touchdown passes of 26 and 27 yards to Randy Moss in the first half.
Late in the first half, however, Brady was hit by defensive tackle Albert Haynesworth, and the New England quarterback could be seen stretching his throwing arm on the sidelines.
Although most of New England's first-team offensive players saw action in the third quarter, Brady did not. The Patriots announced during the second half that Brady's shoulder was merely sore.
New England won it thanks to a 30-yard field goal by Stephen Gostkowski with 8 seconds remaining in the game.
But the pre-season battle highlighted the offensive skills of Brady and Washington quarterback Jason Campbell.
Campbell completed 13-of-22 passes for 209 yards. He did not throw a touchdown pass, but he ran 4 yards for a score in the second period.
New England is 2-1 with one exhibition game remaining. The Redskins are 2-1.