The Thunder also hired Rex Kalamian as an assistant coach.
"We are thrilled to add Maurice and Rex to our coaching staff," said Thunder Coach Scott Brooks. "They bring a wealth of NBA experience and solid work ethic that will help our players' continued development."
Cheeks was dismissed by the 76ers last December after a 9-14 start to the season. He led the team to a 122-147 record with one playoff appearance during his tenure with the Sixers.
Previously, he coached Portland to a 162-139 mark and two playoff appearances.
Kalamian had stints as an assistant at Sacramento, Minnesota and Denver.
Man spent 15 hours in jail for plugging electric car into an outlet at a school
Texas principal bans speaking Spanish, stirs controversy