The Thunder also hired Rex Kalamian as an assistant coach.
"We are thrilled to add Maurice and Rex to our coaching staff," said Thunder Coach Scott Brooks. "They bring a wealth of NBA experience and solid work ethic that will help our players' continued development."
Cheeks was dismissed by the 76ers last December after a 9-14 start to the season. He led the team to a 122-147 record with one playoff appearance during his tenure with the Sixers.
Previously, he coached Portland to a 162-139 mark and two playoff appearances.
Kalamian had stints as an assistant at Sacramento, Minnesota and Denver.