A new date for the bout, which had no title at stake, was not immediately announced.
Mayweather, who was undefeated when he retired in 2007, had announced just last month he would return to the ring.
The Los Angeles Times said the scheduled pay-per-view battle in Las Vegas had not been drawing as well as had been hoped, and the postponement likely eliminates both Mayweather and Marquez from the short list of opponents for Manny Pacquio.
Marquez said in a statement from Mexico he would continue training and would be ready when the new date with Mayweather was set, the Times said.
Exploding whale video goes viral on Internet
Britney Spears on kissing Ryan Gosling, Justin Timberlake in the Mickey Mouse Club