Cable, 44, was named the Raiders' offensive line coach in 2007 before he succeeded the fired Lane Kiffin last September 30, and will be Oakland's fifth full-time coach since Jon Gruden left the team following the 2001 season.
"I'm honored to have the privilege and the responsibility to be the head coach of the Oakland Raiders," he said. "I look forward to getting to work and working hard to bringing a championship to Oakland. It is something that is dear to all of us, dear to the city, and it is something that we will set out to do beginning now."
Oakland compiled a 4-8 record under Cable's guidance, and finished the 2008-09 season with a 5-11 overall mark.
He also was head coach at his alma mater, the University of Idaho, from 2001-2003, but had an 11-35 overall record.