Jurcina's game-winner came just 60 seconds after Toronto's Nik Antropov scored his 10th goal of the season (power play) at 6:12 of the second period to create a 1-1 tie.
Former first-round draft choice Karl Alzner scored his first NHL goal at 1:41 of the second period and assisted on Jurcina's game-winner at 7:12 of the third.
Brent Johnson made 19 saves on 20 shots for the Capitals, who snapped a four-game road losing streak.
Vesa Toskala gave up two goals on 30 shots in the Maple Leafs' third loss in a row.
On the power play, Washington went 0-for-2, and Toronto was 1-for-3.