In his No. 24 Hendrick Motorsports Chevrolet, Gordon circled the Texas Motor Speedway's 1.5-mile, tri-oval in 28.652 seconds (188.469 mph.)
It was his fourth pole victory this season, and the 67th of his Cup career.
"I can't believe that we just got the pole for Texas," a surprised Gordon said after winning the Fort Worth pole position for the first time. "It's a great start to the weekend, but it's only half the battle. We'll see what happens (Sunday)."
Gordon will enter Sunday's race trying to snap a 38-race winless streak.
Dale Earnhardt Inc. driver Martin Truex Jr. will share the front row with Gordon after posting the second fastest time of 28.723 seconds.
"Race for the Chase" contender Clint Bowyer (28.745) and Jamie McMurray (28.745) will start on the second row.