With a speed of 157.061 miles per hour around the Dover International Speedway, the circuit's "Monster Mile," the four-time points champion captured a pole for the third time this season and the 66th time in his Sprint Cup career.
"This is really going to boost this team hopefully to get us through this weekend," Gordon said. "I know it's just qualifying (but) it's still a small victory."
Runner-up Mark Martin just missed the pole by 0.001 of a second and will start the second race in the season-ending "Race for the Chase" in the second position.
Martin did not qualify for the Chase.
Elsewhere, Denny Hamlin, sixth in the "Chase" standings, qualified third; Kurt Busch fourth; and Greg Biffle, last Sunday's winner at the Sylvania 300 in Loudon, N.H., will start fifth.