Roye, 35, has signed a one-year contract with the Steelers, the team announced Sunday.
The 6-foot-4, 330-pound veteran was drafted by the Steelers in 1996 and played four seasons in Pittsburgh before signing with the Browns in 2000.
Roye played seven seasons for Cleveland, which released him this year.
"He is a veteran defensive lineman, a guy who knows how to play the game," Steelers Coach Mike Tomlin said. "He is a professional. We will see what he is capable of doing and work him out. He had a very solid workout and seems to be in pretty good shape, so we will continue on him the next couple of weeks and see if he can find a seat on the bus, if you will."
Roye has 360 tackles and 18.5 sacks in his 11-season NFL career.
"I know I can help," Roye said. "I have been around for a while. I was used to this defense. It will take me a while to get back, but I think I can contribute."