The 32-year-old Palos Verdes, Calif., native pulled out of Wimbledon this summer with the same injury and has been unable to make a satisfactory recovery. She was scheduled to face Australia's Alicia Molik in a singles match Saturday.
"There's concern about being able to play, potentially, 11 matches," a U.S. team spokesman told a BBC reporter in Beijing.
No decision was announced on her replacement for her doubles matches with partner Liezel Huber.
Davenport, ranked 24th int he world, is a former world No. 1 on the women's tennis tour and won a gold medal at the 1996 Atlanta Games.