Davenport, who has been idle since making a second-round exit from last month's Australian Open, will meet Germany's Sabine Lisicki in the opener of the best-of-five match competition.
Ashley Harkleroad will represent the United States in Saturday's second match against Tatiana Malek.
The reverse singles will be played Sunday, with the doubles match -- which could decide which team advances to the semifinals -- sending Davenport and Lisa Raymond against Anna-Lena Groenefeld and Julia Goerges.
The matches will be played on an outdoor hardcourt surface with Zina Garrison serving as captain of the American side.
Davenport has a 31-2 record in Fed Cup play since making her debut 15 years ago. She has led the United States to three of America's 17 Fed Cup crowns.
Russia will play in Israel in another quarterfinal match-up, with the winner of that meeting taking on the U.S.-Germany survivor in April.
The other quarterfinal confrontations will send France to China and Spain to Israel.