Ben Roethlisberger connected on 18 of 21 passes for 165 yards and was picked off once for Pittsburgh, which had the ball in Miami territory on all nine of its possessions.
Playing in soggy conditions, it was the lowest-scoring game in the history of Monday Night Football. Until the closing seconds, it was headed to be the first scoreless contest since the New York Giants and Lions played to a stalemate in 1943 in Detroit.
With the win, the Steelers (8-3) moved a game ahead of Cleveland for first place in the AFC North.
John Beck went 14-of-23 for 132 yards for the Dolphins (0-11), who are trying to avoid becoming the first team since the 1976 Tampa Bay Buccaneers to go through an entire season without a victory.
The Dolphins activated running back Ricky Williams and the former NFL rushing champion had six carries for 15 yards in the first half. Williams left the field and headed to the locker room with nearly six minutes left until halftime due to a right shoulder injury.