Peterson, who scored three touchdowns, became the first rookie in NFL history to have two 200-plus yard rushing games, and has already gained 1,036 rushing yards in just eight games.
Tarvaris Jackson completed 6-of-12 passes for 63 yards for the Vikings before leaving with an apparent head injury. He was replaced by Brooks Bollinger, who finished 7-of-10 for 95 yards and a touchdown.
Sidney Rice had four receptions for 66 yards and a touchdown for Minnesota.
San Diego's Antonio Cromartie also set a record when he returned a missed field goal 109 yards on the final play of the first half for the NFL's longest ever play.
Philip Rivers completed just 19-of-42 passes for 197 yards and an interception for the Chargers.