Langer, a recent addition to the Champions Tour, turned 50 Aug. 27. He skipped the four-tournament FedEx Cup playoffs on the regular tour in order to make his Champions Tour debut.
His 10-under-par round Friday bested the previous record at the Augusta Pines Golf Club set last year by Jay Haas.
"It feels great to have a course record," Langer said. "It's tougher and tougher to do as you get older."
Langer shot a 30 on the front nine and birdied the closing two holes.
This is his fourth Champions Tour event. He had four top-10 finishes on the regular circuit this season, including a playoff loss at the Colonial.
John Cook, appearing in his first Champions Tour tournament, shot a 3-under 69.