He served as general manager for the past 17 seasons, and his successor as GM will be top assistant Frank Wren.
"John's promotion is much-deserved and reflects the respect that the entire Braves organization and all of baseball has for John," said board chairman and CEO Terry McGuirk on the team's Web site.
Atlanta won 14 straight National League east Division titles during Schuerholz' 17-year tenure as GM.
In 1995, he became the only general manager in major league history to win a World Series in both the American and National Leagues.
He did it in the AL with Kansas City in 1985.
Wren, 49, was the assistant GM for the Florida Marlins for eight years, and the GM of the Baltimore Orioles prior to the 1999 season before he was fired after less than a year on the job.