Anderson, 26, played in five games for Florida last season, going 1-1-1 with a 2.21 goals-allowed average. He will primarily serve as the backup for goaltender Tomas Vokoun, who was acquired from Nashville Friday.
"Craig played very well in his back-up role for our club during the later part of last season and we felt that he was most deserving of a NHL contract," said Jacques Martin, Florida's general manager and coach.
"He is a diligent, focused and high-character player who works hard to stay prepared night in and night out. We are confident both Craig and Tomas Vokoun will work well together and bring success to the organization."
The Panthers also tendered offers to forwards Rob Globke, Kamil Kreps, Janis Sprukts and Stephen Weiss, and defensemen Steve Montador and Noah Welch. Florida decided not to extend offers to goalie Alex Auld, forwards Juraj Kolnik, Greg Jacina and Dustin Johner, and defensemen Alexei Semenov and Jeremy Swanson.