His wife, Mary, told the team that Devine, who recently underwent surgery, had been ill since Christmas and passed away at Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St. Louis.
He was 90 years old.
Devine was the architect of teams that won the World Series in 1964 and '67, and three National League pennants.
He was responsible for the acquisitions of several former St. Louis stars like outfielder and base-stealing champion Lou Brock and Hall of Fame pitcher Bob Gibson.
He later served as president of the NFL's St. Louis Cardinals from 1981-86.
"He had a wonderful baseball life," said Mary Devine on the baseball Cardinals Web site. "I tell you he would have worked for them for free."