Taylor carried the ball 20 times. Anthony Maddox returned a fumble 47 yards for Houston's other TD. The Texans (6-10) won three of their last five games.
David Carr completed 9-of-15 passes for 86 yards.
Kicker Phil Dawson accounted for the only Cleveland points with two field goals.
Charlie Frye was 25-of-34 passing for 187 yards with an interception. Kellen Winslow had 11 catches for 93 yards for Cleveland (4-12), which lost its last four games. Reuben Droughns added 83 yards rushing on 19 carries.