The 23-year-old Minnesota Twins left-hander was shut down after a Sept. 13 start against Oakland, complaining of pain in the elbow. That was after he left an Aug. 7 start against Detroit with the same pain, and was sidelined for more than a month.
Monday's surgery will cause Liriano to miss the entire 2007 season.
"What were hoping is that Dr. (Lewis) Yocum will determine what the problem is and give us a solution," Greg Genske, one of Liriano's agents told the Minneapolis Star-Tribune. "Francisco is eager to determine what is wrong with him and get back to pitching as soon as possible."
Liriano tried to use rest and rehabilitation to avoid surgery, but left a rehab program in mid-September was not resolving the problem.
Last season, the former reliever was 12-3 with a 2.16 ERA in 121 innings.