Henderson was signed by the San Diego Surf Dawgs of the Golden Baseball League, it was announced Monday.
"I wanted to be a part of something special and contributing to the launch of a new league was very exciting to me," Henderson said.
Henderson is a 10-time all-star who played for nine big-league clubs. He stole 1,406 bases.
The Golden league has teams in California and Arizona. It starts play later this month with eight teams and plans to expand to 12.
Henderson's "passion for the game is shared by our fans and his many on-field accomplishments set a standard for our younger players," said Kevin Outcalt, the league's commissioner.
Henderson, who last played in the majors in 2003, was with the Newark, N.J., Bears in the Atlantic League the past two seasons.