A four-time series champion, Gordon won his second consecutive race, fourth of the season and 68th in his career. He also became the first driver to win this race from the pole since Cale Yarborough in 1981.
At Dayton and Talladega, NASCAR requires horsepower-robbing carburetor restrictor plates to keep cars under 200 miles per hour.
Gordon took the lead for good in his Chevrolet with six laps remaining by passing Tony Stewart before gradually pulling away.
Gordon finished nearly two car lengths in front of Jimmie Johnson, who also was driving a Chevrolet. Earnhardt was third in a Chevrolet, Kurt Busch was fourth in a Ford and Stewart rounded out the top five in a Chevrolet.
With his victory, Gordon moved from fourth to third in the points standings.