The Wildcats clinched a berth in the Big 12 Conference championship game against Oklahoma.
The 43 attempts also was a school mark for the Wildcats, who wrapped up their third Big 12 North Division title and will face the Sooners in Kansas City on Dec. 6.
Sproles finished the regular season with 1,714 yards, breaking Kansas State's single-season rushing mark of 1,465 he set last year.
The Wildcats likely will be huge underdogs against Oklahoma but their offense has been in high gear the last six weeks. Ell Roberson added 95 yards on 24 carries for Kansas State (10-3, 6-2), which has won six in a row after starting 0-2 in the North Division.