The move was made following Tuesday's 11-5 win over Detroit.
Guillen, who has appeared in over 130 games in each of the previous two seasons, has been limited to 77 games this year. He has been bothered a sore groin throughout the season and is hitting .280 with four homers and 27 RBI in 268 at-bats.
Guillen, 27, becomes the second Seattle starting infielder to be placed on the DL in less than a week. On Friday, third baseman Jeff Cirillo was shelved with a subluxated right shoulder.
Willie Bloomquist started at shortstop for the Mariners on Tuesday, and Seattle acquired Rey Sanchez from the New York Mets before the game. They are expected to use him in Guillen's absence.
"We needed a guy who can play shortstop," said Manager Bob Melvin. "(Sanchez) is a guy who can play shortstop on a consistent basis if we need him to do that."