The indictments were handed up Wednesday in a Brooklyn federal court, but many of those charged live in Texas, the Los Angeles Times reported.
Alexander Fishenko, 46, is accused by federal prosecutors of being the ringleader. He allegedly oversaw shipments to Russia of radar and surveillance systems, weapons guidance systems and detonation triggers.
The indictment said the microelectronics Fishenko is charged with shipping overseas went to Russia's Federal Security Service, the country's domestic intelligence agency.
"These microelectronics had applications in a wide range of military systems, including radar and surveillance systems, weapons targeting systems and detonation triggers," said the indictment. It is illegal to ship such technology out of the United States.
The owner of Arc Electronics Inc. in Houston, Fishenko immigrated to the United States in 1994 and became a citizen nine years later. If found guilty of the charges, he could face more than 20 years in prison.
Also arrested in Houston were Alexander Posobilov, 58, and Viktoria Klebanova, 37.
Posobilov entered the United States in 2001 and became a citizen in 2008. Klebanova is a U.S. citizen but travels frequently to Russia.
Prosecutors said more people would be arrested Thursday.