In a recovery effort broadcast live by Russian TV, workers lifted the fragment from the bottom of Chebarkul Lake in the Chelyabinsk Region. RIA Novosti reported.
The fragment was estimated to weigh around 1,300 pounds before it broke into three pieces during the recovery effort, researchers said.
"This is the daddy of previously recovered pieces. ... See this black crust? This is a visitor from space. ... The crust is very thick, [with traces of] smelting, rust and dents," Sergei Zamozdra, a scientist at Chelyabinsk State University, said at the recovery scene.
The meteorite, which exploded above the Ural Mountains city of Chelyabinsk on February 15, is believed to have weighed about 10,000 tons and measured about 56 feet in diameter. The blast left about 1,500 people injured, mostly from glass shattered by the shock wave.
After study by scientists the biggest piece of the fragment will be put on display at a local museum, officials said.