The archive, intended to pull together widely scattered health logs and other historical material, would be accessible to anyone, they said.
The search for photos, records of medical treatment and other materials mainly from the 1940s to 1970s in the United States and Japan is part of a government-funded, four-year research program that began in April, Kyodo News reported Monday.
"Although nearly 70 years have passed since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the whole picture regarding records of atomic bomb damage is not really clear," Masahito Ando, a professor of archival science at Gakushuin University, said.
Much of the material is believed to have been taken to the United States, he said, adding it was unclear how much might still exist or if it is publicly accessible.
Japanese scholars said they would search the U.S. National Archives and other institutions to determine if there are any related materials, and consult with U.S. institutions that have already released their records with the goal of compiling an integrated catalog.
"Materials on the atomic bombings should be shared by all human beings," Ando said.