The Cabinet's measures, which were announced Saturday, include a mandate that heavy polluters must release detailed environmental information to the general public, The New York Times said.
Another rule states that heavy polluters must reduce their emissions by 30 percent by the end of 2017.
The measures also include heavier fines for polluters, the Times said.
Under the new rules, provincial governments will be assessed on their performance in reducing air pollution and smog, Xinhua reported.
Many of the measures were previously enacted in some cities, or were the subject of a national experiment.
The measures come after years of environmental protests in the country. Thousands of people have taken to the streets over the past two years to protest construction and the operation of large chemical plants, the Times said.