The red, white, black and yellow images discovered near Burgos in eastern central Mexico depict humans engaged in hunting, fishing and gathering, and animals such as deer, lizards and centipedes.
The paintings are as yet undated but archaeologists said they hope to take samples of the pigments to determine their approximate age.
"The discovery is important because we have documented the presence of pre-Hispanic groups in Burgos, where before it was said there was nothing," Gustavo Ramirez from the Mexican National Institute of Anthropology told Britain's The Independent.
Another archaeologist involved in the research said little is known about the ethnic groups who may have lived in the caves.
"These groups escaped the Spanish rule for almost 200 years because they fled to the Sierra de San Carlos where they had water, plants and animals to feed themselves," Martha Garcia Sanchez said.
"We have not found any ancient objects linked to the context, and because the paintings are on ravine walls and in the rainy season the sediments are washed away, all we have is gravel," she said.
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