The Globalstar-2 satellites are intended to orbit the Earth at a distance of about 560 miles, Roscosmos said.
Wednesday's launch, the first of the year from Baikonur, was delayed by one day by high winds, RIA Novosti reported.
The launch brings the number of Globalstar satellites in orbit to 24, with 16 second-generation Globalstar-2 satellites joining eight first-generation units launched in 2007.
Each second-generation satellite has an intended service life of 15 years.
They were developed by a European company, Thales Alenia Space, for Globalstar, based in Louisiana.