The H-IIB rocket blasted off from the Tanegashima Space Center in Kagoshima prefecture, Kyodo News reported.
After its launch, the rocket released the unmanned HTV-3 cargo transporter, which is carrying food, clothing and experiment-related equipment to the ISS, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency said.
The cargo will reach the ISS on Friday, RIA Novosti reported.
Officials said the launch went well.
"The flight of the HTV-3 went true and as expected," said Josh Byerly, NASA's mission control commentator in Houston. "Everything now set up for the arrival of the HTV-3 coming up next week."