Project Leaf will target criminals involved and provide support to enforcement agencies in countries with the biggest problems, Interpol said.
Illegal logging is no longer an issue limited by national boundaries, officials said.
"The international legislation to protect forests and curtail illegal logging demonstrates this," David Higgins, Interpol's Environmental Crime Program manager, told the BBC.
"Project leaf will ensure these global laws are supported by global enforcement and that the criminals responsible are brought to justice -- no matter their location, movements or resources."
Project Leaf -- Law Enforcement Assistance for Forests -- is a partnership between the U.N. Environment Program and Interpol, funded by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation.