The test launch took place Thursday off the coast of the eastern Indian state of Odisha.
"We have done it. Superhit," said V.L. Saraswat, chief of India's Defense Research and Development Organization.
The three-stage solid-fuel rocket, at 57 feet tall, reportedly cost $480 million to develop.
It has a launch weight of 50 tons.
The missile brings all of Asia, 70 percent of Europe and other regions within range and puts India among a select group of countries with intercontinental ballistic missile capability, China's state-run news agency Xinhua reported.