Located at the National Center for Supercomputing in the northern port city of Tianjin, Tianhe-1, meaning Milky Way, has a sustained computing speed of 2,507 trillion calculations, or 2.507 petaflops, per second, China's official news agency Xinhua reported.
Tianhe-1 bested China's previous champion, Nebule, and all others in a biannual poll of the world's 500 fastest computers.
More than half those in the poll are in the United States including the world's previous fastest, the Jaguar system, located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee and capable of 1.75 petaflops.
Tianhe-1 has upgraded Intel CPUs, NVIDIA GPUs and new domestically developed FeiTeng-1000 CPUs, developer National University of Defense Technology said.
Clients for the Tianhe-1 include the Tianjin Meteorological Bureau and China's National Offshore Oil Corp.
"It can also serve the animation industry and biomedical research," Liu Guangming, director of the National Center for Supercomputing in Tianjin, said.