Huang Lushen paid a premium price of 10,500 euros ($14,390) at auction for the burgundy, which came from the personal cellar of Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault.
Huang, 27, told Radio France Internationale he immediately shipped the bottle to China.
The Romanee-Conti wine was one of only 6,000 the winery produces each year and sold well above the 5,000 euro ($6,853) guide price.
Despite the high price, wine experts said Huang got a good deal. Many of the bottles sold from the prime minister's cellar Friday were considered too expensive to ever serve, RFI said.