The accident took place Friday afternoon on the road between Trollhattan and Vanersborg, the Goteborgs-Posten newspaper reported.
There had been reports of an elk spotted in the area earlier that morning, Swedish news agency TT reported Saturday. The elk gave birth in the middle of highway 44, and then ran off, leaving the newborn calf on its own.
The incident caused two cars to collide, TT said. There were no injuries.
Police officers were able to reunite the calf with its mother.
"There are in the woods now and everything got a happy ending," said Bjor Blixter, press spokesman for the Vastra Gotaland police.
Elk and other wild animals in the roads caused 46,562 accidents in 2012 in Sweden, said Algskadefondsforeningen, an association that specializes in helping motorists whose vehicles are involved in collisions with animals.