The eyeballs were discovered at a Conoco gas station at about midnight Thursday, the Kansas City (Mo.) Star reported.
Police said they have called all local eye banks and hospitals to see if they were waiting a delivery, but none were expecting any.
"We are not sure whether a crime has been committed," said Capt. Steve Young, a police spokesman. "We truly are not sure the eyes are even human."
A surveillance video from the gas station shows two men dropping a package that contained the eyes in the trash can and leaving the gas station in a blue Toyota.
The eyes have been transferred to the Jackson County Medical Examiner's office until police determine who left them in the trash.
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