BLOOMINGTON, Ind., Nov. 30 (UPI) -- Behavior problems -- attention issues, delinquency, substance use -- not depression, are linked to lower grades of adolescents, U.S. researchers say.
Lead author Jane D. McLeod, a sociology professor and an associate dean at Indiana University, and colleagues used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, or Add Health, which tracked thousands of U.S. adolescents from their middle and high school years through their transition to early adulthood.
McLeod's analysis focuses on students who were in high school when Add Health began in 1994. To determine academic achievement, McLeod considered the high school grade point averages of students after the first wave of Add Health in 1994 and the highest educational degrees they received by 2008/2009.
"Behavior problems including attention issues, delinquency, and substance use are associated with diminished achievement, but depression is not," McLeod said in a statement. "Certainly, there are depressed youths who have trouble in school, but it's likely because they are also using substances, engaging in delinquent activities, or have attention issues."
The study was published online ahead of the print issue of the December issue of the Journal of Health and Social Behavior.