Dr. Yoko Nomura of Queens College, City University of New York, in Flushing, and colleagues, compared offspring of mothers with and without gestational diabetes mellitus -- in an economically diverse sample.
Gestational diabetes mellitus is a condition in which women without previously diagnosed diabetes exhibit high blood glucose levels during pregnancy -- especially during the third trimester, Nomura said.
The study authors distributed the ADHD Rating Scale-IV to parents of children ages 3-4 children in preschools surrounding Queens College, and recruited 212 participants at a 2:1 ratio of "at risk" to "typically developing" children, Nomura said.
Children in low socioeconomic status families, compared to high socioeconomic status families, had greater inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity scores, Nomura said.
The results showed no difference in the risk for ADHD at baseline, but a two-fold increased risk at age 6 among children exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus compared with children who were not exposed.
There was also a two-fold increased risk for ADHD at baseline and at age 6 among children in low socioeconomic status families, the study said.
The study was published online in Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.