The series is scheduled to premiere on the cable network next year.
"Thomas Jane is exactly the type of high-caliber actor we hoped this project would attract. The intelligence and nuance he brings to every performance is perfect for the role of Miller," Bill McGoldrick, Syfy's executive vice president of original content, said in a statement.
"We knew this material would attract highly skilled actors and could not be happier about having Thomas Jane on board," added Sharon Hall, president of Alcon Television.
Based on James S.A. Corey's popular series of books, which are set 200 years in the future, The Expanse follows the case of "a missing young woman who brings a hardened detective and a rogue ship's captain together in a race across the solar system to expose the greatest conspiracy in human history," press notes said.
Jane's other credits include The Mist, Dreamcatcher, Deep Blue Sea, The Punisher, Thin Red Line, Face/Off, 61* and Boogie Nights.