Washington won best supporting actress, best actress in a television drama and received the NAACP President's Award recognizing special achievement and public service at the Friday ceremony at the Shrine Auditorium.
"Red Tail" -- a World War II drama about the Tuskegee airmen - was named best picture.
Beasts of the Southern Wild" was named best independent film and also took the best director award for Benh Zeitlin, the Los Angeles Times reported.
In television, "Scandal" won for dramatic series and BET's "The Game" won for comedic series, the Times reported.
Comedian and actor Steve Harvey hosted the ceremony.