The album, titled "High Hopes," was available for download on Amazon Saturday, ahead of its Jan. 13 release date, NME.com reported.
Once Amazon realized the mistake, the album was taken down. However, a number of people who bought it made it available for illegal downloading.
It was unclear whether the early release was an accident or something else.
The album is Springsteen's 18th studio album, Billboard reported. The Boss last released "Wrecking Ball" in 2012.
Along with the regular members of Springsteen's backing E Street Band, "High Hopes" features Rage Against the Machine and Audioslave guitarist Tom Morello, who performs on eight of the 12 tracks.