Cyrus, 20, looks naked -- although she is wearing underwear -- as she clings to the titular wrecking ball in the clip and complains about love.
The video, which was posted Monday, was viewed about 14.7 million times by 8 a.m. ET Tuesday.
"I came in like a wrecking ball," Cyrus sings. "All you ever did was wreck me."
The previous viewership record for a single day was held by One Direction's "Best Song Ever," which was seen by 12.3 million viewers when it was released June 25.
Digital Spy said Cyrus' video hit that milestone about 13 hours after it was released.
"We broke the record :) We hit 12.3 million on vevo :) keep watching #wreckingballonvevo thank you Smilers," Cyrus tweeted Monday.
"DONT STOP WATCHING WRECKING BALL WE HAVE 9 Hours More we can get the Views Higher! #WreckedTheRecord"