The sentence was the maximum allowed.
The singer's personal physician was found guilty of involuntary manslaughter this month in the pop star's 2009 death.
Murray was convicted of causing Jackson's death by giving him anesthesia and sedatives to help him sleep at home, then leaving the room and failing to come to his aid when he was in distress.
The cardiologist also has been criticized for not having emergency equipment on hand or keeping records of his treatment of the recording artist.
"He has absolutely no sense of remorse and absolutely no sense of fault," E! News quoted Los Angeles Superior County Judge Michael Pastor as saying when he announced sentence. "And he's dangerous. There are those who believe Dr. Murray is a saint. There are those who believe Dr. Murray is the devil. He is neither. He is a human being."
Jackson's mother Katherine told CNN Monday she thought Murray should receive the maximum prison sentence under the law, even though he likely didn't mean for her son to die.
"I don't believe that he intended for Michael to die," Katherine Jackson told CNN. "He was just taking a chance."
Katherine Jackson and two of her children, recording artists LaToya and Jermaine, were in the courtroom for the sentencing.
Murray declined to speak at the hearing.