Searchlight Pictures Presidents Nancy Utley and Stephen Gilula announced the acquisition Tuesday.
Gleeson reunited with his "The Guard" writer-director John Michael McDonagh for "Calvary," which recently screened at the Sundance Film Festival.
Gleeson previously starred in "In Bruges," a dark comedy written and directed by McDonagh's brother, Martin.
"Calvary" co-stars Chris O'Dowd, Kelly Reilly, Aidan Gillen, Dylan Moran, Isaach De Bankole, M. Emmet Walsh, Marie-Josee Croze, Domhnall Gleeson, David Wilmot, Pat Shortt, Gary Lydon, Killian Scott, Orla O'Rourke, Owen Sharpe and David McSavage.
"Brendan Gleeson gives a tour de force performance in a film that John Michael McDonagh has written and directed with perfection, taking us into a world with distinctive characters where the stakes are high," Gilula and Utley said in a joint statement.
"We made a great film. In Fox Searchlight, we now have a great company behind us to send that film out into the world. Thank you, Sundance. Thank you, bourbon! Onward," said McDonagh.
"Father James is a good priest who is faced with sinister and troubling circumstances brought about by a mysterious member of his parish," a synopsis said. "Although he continues to comfort his own fragile daughter and reach out to help members of his church with their various scurrilous moral -- and often comic -- problems, he feels sinister and troubling forces closing in, and begins to wonder if he will have the courage to face his own personal Calvary."