The studio described the upcoming Batman film as "the epic conclusion to the Dark Knight legend."
Cotillard will appear as Miranda Tate, a Wayne Enterprises board member eager to help a still-grieving Bruce Wayne resume his father's philanthropic endeavors for Gotham.
Gordon-Levitt will play John Blake, a Gotham City police officer signed to special duty under the command of Commissioner Gordon, played by Gary Oldman.
The film reunites Cotillard and Gordon-Levitt with Christopher Nolan, who directed them in the blockbuster "Inception."
"When you collaborate with people as talented as Marion and Joe, it comes as no surprise that you would want to repeat the experience. I immediately thought of them for the roles of Miranda and Blake, and I am looking forward to working with both of them again," Nolan said in a statement Tuesday.
The cast of "The Dark Knight Rises" features Christian Bale as Bruce Wayne/Batman, Anne Hathaway as Selina Kyle and Tom Hardy as Bane.
The movie is slated for release July 20, 2012.
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