Castro, 85, appeared at the ceremony at the Havana Convention Center, the BBC reported.
Speaking about his book, "Guerrilla of Time," Castro said it was the duty of every Cuban to fight until the last moment for their country, the planet and humanity.
The book opens with Castro's early childhood memories and covers his life until the December 1958 overthrow of Fulgencio Batista by Castro and his followers.
Interviews of Castro by journalist Katiuska Blanco form the basis of the two-volume memoir of almost 1,000 pages.
Castro handed over the presidency to his brother Raul in 2006 and has kept a low profile. His last public appearance was in April 2011 at the closing session of the Communist Party Congress, the BBC said Saturday.