Arthur was 86, spokesman, Dan Watt, told The New York Times. He said she had cancer.
Born Bernice Frankel, Arthur dreamed as a girl in Cambridge, Md, of going on the stage. She changed her name to Beatrice because she thought it would look impressive on a theater marquee, the Times said.
Her Broadway musical roles included Lucy Brown in Kurt Weill's "Three-Penny Opera," Yente the Matchmaker in "Fiddler on the Roof" and Vera Charles in "Mame" -- a role that brought her a Tony Award.
In 1970, when she was visiting her then-husband, director Gene Saks, in Los Angeles, producer Norman Lear convinced her to appear in his hit TV show "All in the Family."
Arthur's character, Maude Findlay, soon got a spinoff show. In seven years, the show explored hot-button issues like abortion and women's rights -- "everything but hemorrhoids," Arthur said in a 2001 interview.
Arthur went on to "The Golden Girls," where she played Dorothy Zbornak, one of four older women sharing a house.
She was nominated for 11 Emmy Awards -- winning in 1988 for "The Golden Girls" and in 1977 for "Maude."