The event is scheduled to run from May 13-24.
"I am very glad and very proud," Huppert said in a statement. "I've had a long relationship with Cannes and this next meeting will definitely seal my love for the festival and, thus, for global cinema. Cannes is the open door to all the new ideas of the world. I am thrilled at the idea of being a privileged spectator in it."
Huppert's film credits include "Faustine et le bel ete," "Cesar et Rosalie," "Le Bar de la fourche," "Les Valseuses," "Le Juge et l'Assassin" and "La Dentelliere."
She is following Sean Penn, who was jury president in 2008. The last time a woman held the position was in 2001 when Liv Ullman served as jury president.