The film is an adaptation of Cormac McCarthy's novel of the same name.
A movie version of the author's work "No Country for Old Men" has earned critical praise and numerous prizes this awards season.
Australian director John Hillcoat plans to helm "The Road," the story of a man trying to transport his son to safety while fending off cannibals after a nuclear explosion, Variety.com reported Tuesday.
Theron would play a small role seen mainly in flashback, the entertainment industry trade paper said.
She reportedly took the part because she loves the book.
The film is scheduled to begin shooting next month.
Theron is best-known for her roles in "Monster" and "North Country."