The photo that ran last week in the Sun showed Laura McEvoy, 21, on the floor of Doherty's apartment and the rocker leaning over her with a hypodermic needle.
"It's a staged shot and what a (expletive) liberty to suggest I'd bang up a sleeping lass," Doherty posted on his Web site.
Doherty, 27, was arrested Saturday on suspicion of administering a noxious substance recklessly, the Sun reported. He was released on bail with an order to return to the station in July.
He is already on probation after pleading guilty to drug possession last month.
Doherty's former band mate, Carl Barat from The Libertines, said he was shocked by the photo of the singer and the student.
"It's a bad situation," Barat told the Sun. "It's a lot to take in. It's a sad situation."
Doherty could be sentenced up to 10 years in prison if charged and convicted in the latest incident.